Ideologically Challenged Research: X-chromosome and Intelligence

There are many research topics that an academic, state or governmental employed scientist, better doesn’t touch. Most of these topics lay in the field of social science, but there are a few biological issues too. Sex difference of intelligence is among them.

The table below shows the The trials to publish such data and the prompt and vigorous comments.

Year Authors Comments Replies
1972 Lehrke 1 Anastasi2,Nance3 Lehrke4
1991 Turner5 Morton6
1992 Feingold7 Katzman8,Shaffer9 Feingold10
1993 Feingold11 Hedges12,Hedges13 Weinberg14
1996 Turner15 Hook16 Turner17
2008 Johnson18,Johnson19 Craig20,Turkheimer21 Johnson22

The next publication-comment-reply chain stands out a little bit as the first publication is not supporting sex differences. It rather states the opposite.

2005 Blinkhorn23 Irwing24 Blinkhorn25

The question is why someone bothers with commenting such a publication at all. The answer can be found in the text, which is actually a comment printed in a prestigious journal on a 2004 published metaanalysis26. The Blinkhorn article somehow reminds me of Pravda articles in Soviet times, the official voice of the communist party, that law-like determined how things have to be interpreted to comply political correctness.

References

1. Lehrke R. Theory of X-Linkage of Major Intellectual Traits. American Journal of Mental Deficiency. 1972;76(6):611–419.

2. Anastasi A. 4 Hypotheses with a Dearth of Data – Response to Lehrkes a Theory of X-Linage of Major Intellectual Traits. American Journal of Mental Deficiency. 1972;76(6):620–622.

3. Nance W, Engel E. One X and 4 Hypotheses – Response to Lehrkes a Theory of X-Linkage of Major Intellectual Traits. American Journal of Mental Deficiency. 1972;76(6):623–625.

4. Lehrke R. Response to Dr Anastasi and to Dr Nance and Dr Engel. American Journal of Mental Deficiency. 1972;76(6):626–631.

5. Turner G, Partington MW. Genes for intelligence on the X chromosome. J Med Genet. 1991;28(6):429.

6. Morton NE. Genes for intelligence on the X chromosome. J Med Genet. 1992;29(1):71.

7. Feingold A. Sex Differences in Variability in Intellectual Abilities: A New Look at an Old Controversy. REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH. 1992;62(1):61–84.

8. Katzman S, Alliger GM. Averaging Untransformed Variance Ratios Can Be Misleading: A Comment on Feingold. REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH. 1992;62(4):427–428.

9. Shaffer JP. Caution on the Use of Variance Ratios: A Comment. REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH. 1992;62(4):429–432.

10. Feingold A. Cumulation of Variance Ratios. REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH. 1992;62(4):433–434.

11. Feingold A. Joint Effects of Gender Differences in Central Tendency and Gender Differences in Variability. REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH. 1993;63(1):106–109.

12. Hedges LV, Friedman L. Computing Gender Difference Effects in Tails of Distributions: The Consequences of Differences in Tail Size, Effect Size, and Variance Ratio. REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH. 1993;63(1):110–112.

13. Hedges LV, Friedman L. Gender Differences in Variability in Intellectual Abilities: A Reanalysis of Feingold’s Results. REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH. 1993;63(1):94–105.

14. Weinberg SL. The Hedges and Friedman Index: Two-Tailed Significance. REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH. 1993;63(4):527–529.

15. Turner G. Intelligence and the X chromosome. The Lancet. 1996;347(9018):1814–1815.

16. Hook EB. Intelligence and the X chromosome. The Lancet. 1996;348(9030):826.

17. Turner G. Intelligence and the X chromosome. The Lancet. 1996;348(9030):826.

18. Johnson W, Carothers A, Deary IJ. Sex Differences in Variability in General Intelligence: A New Look at the Old Question. Perspectives on Psychological Science. 2008;3(6):518–531.

19. Johnson W, Carothers A, Deary IJ. A Role for the X Chromosome in Sex Differences in Variability in General Intelligence? Perspectives on Psychological Science (Wiley-Blackwell). 2009;4(6):598–611.

20. Craig IW, Haworth CMA, Plomin R. Commentary on “A Role for the X Chromosome in Sex Differences in Variability in General Intelligence?” (Johnson et al., 2009). Perspectives on Psychological Science. 2009;4(6):615–621.

21. Turkheimer E, Halpern DF. Sex Differences in Variability for Cognitive Measures Do the Ends Justify the Genes? (Commentary on Johnson et al., 2009). Perspectives on Psychological Science. 2009;4(6):612–614.

22. Johnson W, Carothers A, Deary IJ. Speculation to Inform and Speculation to Explore Response to Craig et al. (2009) and Turkheimer & Halpern (2009). Perspectives on Psychological Science. 2009;4(6):622–623.

23. Blinkhorn S. Intelligence: A gender bender. Nature. 2005;438(7064):31–32.

24. Irwing P, Lynn R. Intelligence: Is there a sex difference in IQ scores? Nature. 2006;442(7098):E1–E1.

25. Blinkhorn S. Intelligence: Is there a sex difference in IQ scores? (Reply). Nature. 2006;442(7098):E1–E2.

26. Lynn R, Irwing P. Sex differences on the progressive matrices: A meta-analysis. Intelligence. 2004;32(5):481–498.


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Fauceir theory is developed and © by Mato Nagel and available at www.fauceir.org.

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