Though cell theory is found in wikipedia, regrettably, there is no entry on organismal theory. Instead, I found these websites kind of instructive:
- A brief comparison of these two views. Regrettably references are vague or no useful links.
- A list of references. Regrettably not accessible to the public.
- Some personal view on the subject. Regrettably no references.
The difference between these two theories is best characterized by Sachs’, a proponent of organismal theory, own words who claimed: “The plant forms cells, the cells do not form plants.” One may understand the inversion as the slogan of cell theory.
Now understanding evolution, we well know that unicellular organisms came first. Next multicellular organisms appeared whose cells further differentiated into specific tissues, organs, and organ systems. Still there are some species of fungi that can be understood as a large single cell with multiple nuclei. Also even in multicellular plants, cells are not separated entirely from each other. Their cytoplasm remains kind of interconnected by plasmodesmata.
On the other hand, in animals all cells are tightly interconnected too. Their growth is regulated and the functions is controlled by chemical (hormones, cytokines) or physical (electric currents, mechanical pressure) signals. The cardinal argument of the cell theory proponents that cells can survive without an organisms holds only if cell culture mimics all the conditions natural environment. Also it is nor so easy to take a single cell from an animal and clone a new organism because somatic mutations and imprintings may have occurred to this single cell. In other words the cloned animal inherits all the information the parental organisms conveyed to this cell during lifetime.
This puzzle can be solved by the fauceir approach. Cells, tissues, organs, and organisms are all fauceirs. Though they have different functions and properties, they have common ones, too, and they follow the same rule of fauceir evolution.
This work by Paul Netman is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 United States License.
Fauceir theory is developed and © by Mato Nagel and available at www.fauceir.org.